There are many different elements that have to come together to make affordable Persian rugs. You have to start with threads that are of high quality to create the strength that these carpets will need to be durable and dependable. You can use wool, as most of these items are crafted from wool fibers, or you can use cotton to create the carpet, and there are some of these items that are crafted from silk. The silk variety is rarely used in affordable Persian rugs because silk threads are more expensive and it is hard to keep the price of the carpets low when using this material.
Affordable Persian rugs are woven just like the more expensive variants are, except the ones that are priced lower are generally woven by a mechanical loom, and the higher priced items are woven by hand. The cheaper versions that are made by mechanical looms have a lower price because the making of them is less labor intensive. You have to remember that it takes several months to handcraft a simple carpet, and the intricate patterns, or larger sized carpets often take several years to be made by hand. The items that are machine produced are made in a few short hours.
You have to have many different colors of thread to make the motifs and patterns on the carpets. The designs are created by taking different colored threads and using them at the appropriate time instead of making a plain colored carpet and stamping the pattern onto it. There are variations of these items that are made one color and then have their motifs stamped onto them, but these items are an inferior quality, and they are not just affordable, they are cheap.
You must have the design or pattern to create the item. Most of the hand crafted pieces get their designs from a tradition of passing down the patterns to make a particular design. This is a lot like the handmade quilts that have a mother pass the pattern that she got from her mother down to her daughter. These patterns have been in use for many years and they are not bought, they are taught.
The combs that hand crafters use between the rows to make their threads more secure are not used on the mechanical versions. The mechanical loom will automatically create the desired tension and rake the threads after the completion to secure the knots. Some of the machines use a two loop knot, but the majority of them make a single loop knot during the process.
The hardest part of creating these more affordable pieces in a mass production is keeping the integrity of the design, and the durability that people expect when they buy a carpet from this part of the world. People know that carpets from this area have been created since before the time of Christ and they expect the items that get from this area to be superior to the ones constructed in other countries.